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Enterprise Database Software Extended

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Database Management Systems Mobile Database Software Extending a Database Management System
Big Data Technology Apache Hadoop NoSQL Database
Database Training by SYS-ED Courseware and Distance-learning Specialized Database Training Service

Crystal Reports

Access, Azure, Visual FoxPro, and SQL Server are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
ADABAS is a registered trademark of Software AG.
Db2, DB2, and IMS are registered trademarks of IBM Corporation.
IBM has changed the branding of its software to Db2 from DB2.
FOCUS and WebFOCUS are registered trademarks of Information Builders.
IDMS is a registered trademark of Computer Associates.
Oracle database is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation.
Sybase SQL is a registered trademark of Sybase Inc. and SAP.

Database Training Services - Scalable Databases and Reporting
Courseware for Teaching
Cloud Programming
Open Source Software GSA Submission

Operational Strategies with Commercial Database Software
Database Management Systems

According to the leading information technology research firms, Oracle Corporation database is the leading database management system in terms of market share. IBM Corporation Db2 is a close second, followed by Microsoft SQL Server, and SAP-Sybase. All are relational databases; each company also markets additional databases. In most cases, a commercial database will have a OSS: Open Source Free or low cost counterpart: Firebird, MySQL, Ingres, and PostgreSQL. International Data Corporation projections are that by 2020 the volume of stored data will increase to over 40 times the 2009 level.

Software companies differentiate commercial software products based upon: quality of code, efficient utilization with multiple base operating systems and web servers, integration with its other software products, availability of development platforms, documentation, and support services. Not all databases will have the identical capacity and featureset; nor will a database work equally well with other commercial and open source software. The design and underlying architecture of a database will make it well suited and efficient within a range of volume, data management, transactions, and administrative functions.

Oracle Corporation IBM Corporation Microsoft Corporation
Oracle Database MySQL - FOSS Db2 Relational
IMS Hierarchical Database MS Access MS SQL Server
WebLogic Server and Oracle Fusion WebSphere Application Server and Rational MS IIS, MS Azure, and MS Visual Studio .Net

Oracle Corporation has grown through acquisition and added to its flagship commercial database with open source software: MySQL database, Java language, UNIX-Solaris operating system, and GlassFish web server. The Oracle database strategy is based upon providing enhancements and value to its customers through its Exadata software and product options for data compression and performance through both software and hardware. Oracle has two commercial web servers Oracle Application Server and WebLogic Server. WLS: WebLogic Server has been rebranded as Oracle WebLogic Server and is the preferred server in the Oracle Fusion software and development platform. The long term plan is a unified database, web server, and development platform which drives an integrated software and hardware company.

IBM Corporation's Db2 is the leading database on mainframe hardware and system software; IBM's IMS first generation hierarchical database and Teradata data warehouse provide specialized niche functionality. Db2 is competing directly with the Oracle database on other operating system platforms. Starting with Db2 9.7 for Linux, UNIX, and Windows, IBM supports Oracle and PL/SQL applications: syntax, locking mechanisms, datatypes, SQL, procedural language, and client interfaces. IBM provides a minimal cost trial and migration paths to Db2. Db2 can serve as an engine to the open source MySQL database. Db2 Express-C is available unsupported, free of charge, for unrestricted use in production environments. IBM also uses its established market presence with WAS WebSphere Application Server and industry leading IBM MQ (WebSphere MQ) middleware to drive sales of DB2 software.

Microsoft Corporation's strategy for growth is based upon the growth and integration of its MS Windows Azure cloud service, upgrades from its MS Access workstation database software to MS SQL Server and the popularity of its proprietary programming languages and .NET Framework and development platform. Microsoft support for FoxPro is being phased out. MS SQL Server is the recommended database on its industry leading MS SharePoint Server enterprise content management system. Windows Azure is a Microsoft PaaS: Platform as a Service for managing individual virtual machines to customize and control the cloud instance infrastructure. Microsoft supports Azure with Visual Studio and .NET, third-party, and open source languages.

According to a Couchbase survey, eighty-four percent of organizations have experienced cancellation, delays, or reductions in scope of digital projects due to limitations of their legacy database.1  Open source and data analytics apps will require new types of non-SQL databases: document-oriented, wide column stores, and high-volume data collection and ordering.

Mobile Database Software

Each commercial software company has a mobile database software strategy which integrates with its enterprise database.

IBM Db2 Everyplace supports high availability, load balancing, and enterprise synchronization for managing data distribution to mobile devices. It integrates with JDBC-compliant and RDBMS data sources: Microsoft, Oracle, Sybase, and Apache Derby. IBM Mobile Database is a IBM DB data server with a small footprint relational database optimized for mobile use. Typically, it is an embedded database accessed through an application. IBM Db2 Everyplace applications can be migrated to IBM Mobile Database.

MS SQL Server Compact 4.0 database has been optimized for use in ASP.NET Web applications. It supports the SQL Server syntax, ADO.NET programming model, and .NET web applications. The application development support for SQL Server Compact 4.0 is provided in the Professional, Premium, and Ultimate editions of Visual Studio 2010 SP1 and higher.

Oracle Database Lite is a small footprint SQL database installed as integrated software which synchronizes with an Oracle Database server. Oracle Database Lite consists of Lite Client and Lite Mobile Server. There is a mobile server middleware component which supports scalable data synchronization and centralized management of mobile resources.

Mobile database technology is being used in a variety of applications and device environments, ranging from music databases within MP3 players, to mobile CRM software on smartphones devices. A flexible comprehensive mobile database will support multiple indexes: B-Trees, R-Trees for mapping data, Patricia Tries, KD-Trees for k-dimensional, and hash tables. The mobile database management system will be required to support the user requirements. The selection of a central database needs to be integrated with the mobile database for coexistence in a single system while sharing the data.

There also are a number of alternative commercial and open source mobile software databases.

Extending a Database Management System

The criteria for organizational enterprises to assess database software has evolved to five major areas: 1- Usability 2- Performance and scalability 3- Security 4- Back-end operations 5- Return on investment or cost center accounting. When writing an application, a decision has to be made on which relational database management system to utilize. Once that choice has been made, to a large extent this becomes an investment in information technology infrastructure. Switching to open source software or different commercial database vendors to take advantage of lower prices, an improved technology, or a better partnership is undermined typically by the legacy code which requires extensive rewrite before it can be reused with another relational database system. The ability to design, model, implement, and administer a database is used to provide comparative advantage in relation to the cost structure and services offered by a competitor.

  Database Management Software  
  Operational Strategies  
  Scripting     Web Server  
  SQL: Structured Query Language     Enterprise Content Management  
  Data Recovery     Middleware  
  Programming Languages     System Software  
  Develoment Platform     Backup/Recovery  
  Data Integrity     Data Administration  
  BI: Business Intelligence     Data Warehousing  
  Mobile Computing     Cloud Computing  
  Local Database     Virtualization  
The operational requirements which apply to database management systems are far more extensive and multivariate than either the first generation 1970 hierarchical databases or the relational databases from the mid 1980's. Databases are being used in hybrid combinations with commercial and free open source software specific to the organization's information processing operations. In addition to the standard issues, there are decisions that have to be made with respect to development platforms and scripting for new applications, integration of open source software, and developing a capability for mobile computing devices. Alternatively, information technology operations may be outsourced to cloud computing service providers.

Cloud databases are fully automated multitenant services that present a database capability. Cloud solutions allow for application development with a low start up cost and minimal database administration. There is on demand scalability which mitigates capacity management issues and provides scalability. MongoDB and CouchDB have emerged as niche cloud computing databases. They are competing with the cloud databases offered by Oracle, IBM, and Microsoft.

The leading commercial software companies are developing cloud computing strategies which incorporate and leverage its database management technologies. They are competing with Amazon Web Services, Google Corporation, and number of new entrants.

Big Data Technology

The Big Data market is expanding rapidly as large IT companies and startups compete for customers and market share by providing more opportunities to use the technology to improve operational efficiency and drive innovation. The forecasts are that the worldwide Big Data technology services will grow at approximately a 30% compound annual growth rate. The major IT vendors increasingly are offering enterprise database configurations which support Big Data.

Apache Hadoop

Hadoop is a project from the Apache Software Foundation developed for leading cloud based companies such as Google, Yahoo, and Facebook operational requirements required supporting daily access to huge datasets across distributed servers. Open source Hadoop enables distributed data processing for for big data applications across a large number of servers. The concept and principle of operation is that distributed parallel processing will result in redundancy and more efficient performance across clouds to prevent outages. Its increased implementation is being driven by the: 1- Growing number of companies applications using very large datasets. 2- The availability of clouds containing hundreds or thousands of distributed processors with huge storage capacity.

Hadoop is a generic processing framework designed to execute queries and other batch read operations against extremely large datasets that can be tens or hundreds of terabytes and even petabytes in size. Hadoop operates on massive datasets by horizontally scaling the processing across very large numbers of servers through MapReduce. Vertical scaling is used for executing on the single most powerful single server available; however, this is expensive in terms of resources and limiting. MapReduce splits up a problem, sends the sub-problems to different servers, and lets each server solve its sub-problem in parallel. It then merges all the sub-problem solutions together and writes out the solution into files which be used as inputs into additional MapReduce steps. Hadoop has been useful in environments where massive server farms are being used to collect the data. Hadoop processes parallel queries as large background batch jobs on the same server farm.

Open source database products do not support operations such as parallel query through horizontal scaling. The leading commercial database products offer capabilities that Hadoop does not provide: performance optimizations, analytic functions, and declarative features. This provides for complex analysis by non-programmers, enterprise class features for security, auditing, maximum availability, and disaster recovery.

The Oracle corporation database can coexist and complement Hadoop. The inexpensive cycles of server farms and Hadoop can be used for transforming masses of unstructured data with low information density into smaller amounts of information dense structured data which is then loaded into Oracle Exadata. Oracle Data Integrator is based on Hive and provides native Hadoop integration. A user interface is provided for creating programs to load data to and from files or relational data stores. Oracle Data Integrator provides: 1- High performance data integration between Hadoop and a Oracle database. 2- Simplifies Java MapReduce development through optimized developer productivity. 3- High performance load to the Oracle database using ODI with Oracle Loader for Hadoop. 4- Oracle Data Integrator Enterprise Edition E-LT: Extract Load and Transform improves performance and reduces data integration costs.

IBM has ended development of BigInsights, its distribution of Hadoop, and will migrate existing users to the HDP: Hortonworks Data Platform. In return, Hortonworks will resell two IBM products: Data Science Experience suite of tools for collaborative analytics and Big SQL, a SQL-on-Hadoop query engine. This will increase the size of the Hortonworks customer base. There also will be joint development to expand the features of the Apache Atlas framework. It is part of a continued elevation of data governance and security as key issues in Big Data environments. For Hortonworks, the IBM DSX is a more enterprise-ready workbench environment than the Apache Zeppelin notebook tool. IBM SQL also has advantages over the Apache Hive SQL query engine. Hortonworks will be concentrating on HDP related open source technologies that manage the core Hadoop platform: Apache Ranger security framework and HDF: Hortonworks DataFlow tool for movement of data between systems. The HDF 3.0 will have new features for creating streaming analytics applications and a centralized repository for data schemas.

The Hadoop team development and documentation effort centered on the Linux platform. Microsoft Win32 is supported as a development platform. However, distributed operation has not been thoroughly tested on Win32 as a production platform. There currently is minimal Hadoop support in pseudo- and distributed- mode on the Microsoft Windows operating system platform.

The leading independent vendors of the Hadoop distribution are Hortonworks, Cloudera, MapR Technologies and cloud-platform market leader AWS: Amazon Web Services. In 2014, Intel dropped its Hadoop distribution and bought an 18% position in Cloudera and made that its preferred Hadoop platform. Microsoft and Dell Technologies - formerly EMC/VMware - Pivotal have made the decision to support HDP: Hortonworks Data Platform. AWS allows users of its Amazon EMR: Elastic MapReduce managed service to use either its own Hadoop distribution or the MapR version.

NoSQL Database

A NoSQL database is a non-relational database. The NoSQL databases under development include: Apache Cassandra, MongoDB, Voldemort, Apache HBase, SimpleDB, and BigTable. Projects are underway for developing SQL interfaces to NoSQL databases.

NoSQL operates on massive datasets by horizontally scaling the processing across very large numbers of servers. This sharding technique essentially is the same that has has been deployed for supporting high volume systems using conventional relational databases. Sharding requires that a separate database run on each server and that the data be physically partitioned in order that each database has its own subset of the data stored on its own local disks. There are tradeoffs associated with sharding; important relational database capabilities will be lost such as for performing joins, transactions, and schema changes. ACID: atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability principles can no longer be applied uniformly. In order to join data with sharding, it will be necessary to distribute queries that span potentially very large numbers of separate databases. There will be additional complexity with distributed queries as compared to queries which join data within a single database. This can result in additional overhead and degrade performance. As a result, NoSQL databases, typically will not support joins.

Transactions that allow updates for multiple rows to be committed or rolled back together should a failure occur together require distributed transactions in a sharded environment; the implementation requirement will be a two phase commit protocol. This will result in additional complexity and resource consumption than if all the data is contained within a single database Two phase commit can be slow, and can compromise availability resulting from failures can lead to indoubt transactions which cause data to become locked and inaccessible until the failure is repaired. NoSQL databases typically will not support transactions that involve updates to data in multiple tables or multiple rows within a table.

Database Training by SYS-ED

SYS-ED provides database courses and integrated training programs designed to address the operational objectives of Fortune 1000 companies, government municipalities, and healthcare providers. SYS-ED teaches and provides guidelines on both commercial database software and the open source alternatives: enterprise, Big Data, cloud computing, and mobile databases.

The SYS-ED database curriculum is built upon a knowledge of database and interrelated areas of information technology: operating systems, web servers, scripting, middleware, programming languages, and development platforms.

Client/Server Databases

Enterprise Databases Scalable to Big Data

For organizations implementing and expanding its web-based E-commerce capabilities:   For organizations extending and optimizing its database capabilities:
  • Design user interface option buttons, drop-down lists, and, command buttons.

  • Migrate from client/server workstation databases to enterprise databases: IBM DB2, Oracle, and MS SQL Server.

  • Design a relational database to scale from 10,000 to millions of rows.

  • Design a relational database for efficient retrieval and maintenance of large number of rows.

  • Automate tasks with macros, stored procedures, scripting, and SQL.

  • Centralize access rules and administration: triggers, stored procedures, and business rules.
  • Reporting data: simple, relational, and OLAP.
  • Provide database implementation on multiple web server platforms: IIS, Apache, Oracle, WebLogic, and WebSphere.
  • Use queries: select, delete, and update.
  • Design and implement database applications: JDeveloper, JBuilder, Java, and .Net.
  • Utilize the new datatypes: graphics, sound clips, and urls.
  • Provide database access to mobile devices and virtual desktop operating systems.
  • Provide web access to its databases: ODBC, JDBC, and ADO.Net.
  • With mainframe and Internet connectivity: DB2 Connect, ODBC, and JDBC.

Cloud Computing and Databases


Mobile Devices Databases

For organizations expanding its database services and application development to cloud computing platforms:

  For organizations designing and coding mobile database applications:
  • Utilization of cloud databases and DaaS: Database as a Service for operational efficiency and reduced costs.
  • Selection of a mobile application database to run on smartphones and synchronize with the server database.
  • On demand scalability of cloud platforms for reducing capacity management and administration responsibility.
  • Application development which functions both connected to the network or offline standalone.
  • Monitoring the cloud environment for failures and configuring auto-failover mechanisms and database synchronization.
  • Single- and cross- platform development.
  • A virtual database system to provide access and share data independent as to the user's current location.
  • Efficient database query processing and updates on locally cached data.
  • Database and application design on Amazon Web Services with SimpleDB.
  • Allocating resources for connections from desktop and laptop computers that address latency for Internet connections.
  • Application database design and development with Google Corporation cloud database and its GoogleAppEngine Data Store.
  • Routing which will work at the network level through the database schema and synchronization.
  • Guidelines for integration and scalability of Microsoft Azure and SQL Server.
  • Physical and logical database design for terrestrial locations and WiFi access where network availability and transmission are unreliable and unpredictable.
  • Cloud database security.
  • End-to-end encryption and security at multiple levels - device theft, device loss, and data interception over the Internet.

Few consulting firms, let alone training companies, have the experience with databases and the skillset to provide premium training services: Structured Query Language, database design, administration, programming, Open and Java Database Connectivity, and specialized database platform transition courses.

Courseware and Distance-learning Service

SYS-ED courseware and training aids are used in conjunction with textbooks. The courseware library includes databases, test data, and sample programs used in teaching how to implement, administer, query, and write code.  The SYS-ED courseware is highly valued in interrelated areas of information technology.

Open Source Software
Java Development Platform and Language
Linux Operating System UNIX Operating System
Open Source Scripting XML Platform
Commercial Database Software
SAP - Crystal Reports SAP - Business Objects
SAP - Sybase
  Distance-learning Service  
IBM Database and System Software
DB2 Relational Database
IMS Hierarchical Database
WebSphere Family
Microsoft Database Software
MS Relational Databases
MS Development Platforms
MS Scripting
Oracle Database and Development Platform
Oracle Relational Database
Oracle and WebLogic Development
MySQL - Open Source Software UNIX - Solaris

Upon completion of a instructor-led database course at the client location, content is organized for future utilization in a web-based training infrastructure.

Distance-learning Service

SYS-ED's offers a subset of its database courses in a web-based learning format. The distance-learning service is an extension of the SYS-ED schedule, inclusive of courseware and training aids. A distance-learning course is 65% interactive lecture with review questions, examples, workshops, and website support services.


Oracle Database Administration Training Program Java Enterprise Development MS SQL Server Training Program MS .NET Programming

Enrollment requires a consultation with the manager sending the employee for the training. The prospective trainee needs to be qualified for the course and service transmission to the client located tested: bandwidth, firewall, base operating system, software requirements, web browser, and set up of machine exercises.

SYS-ED reserves the right to deny enrollment in its courses.

Grow Your Own Database Personnel

Over the past year, we have had a number of inquiries regarding whether SYS-ED still offered scalable and software specific database courses for business professionals, webmasters, and information technology professionals.

The typical comments were that:

1. It is difficult to find database training which provides the foundation and develops the specialized skills needed for specific development and maintenance tasks.
2. There is a scarcity of database courses geared to the employees from Fortune 1000 companies, government, and healthcare providers.
3. A high percentage of database courses are cancelled.
4. Travel costs and living expenses in a majority of situations are a significant constraint when it comes to attending a database course.
5. It is important to have a resource for asking database questions once a course is complete.

In response to these questions:

Database Training Services  Yes, SYS-ED offers specialized database training: report generation, administration, programming, and tailored training.
Database Training Services  Yes, since the early 1990's, SYS-ED has taught database courses.
Database Training Services  Yes, we have the flexibility and resources to provide personalized training for small groups.
Database Training Services  Database courses are available in multiple formats: classroom, distance-learning, and blended web-based delivery.
Database Training Services  Upon completion of a SYS-ED course, our staff is available to answer commercial software vendor - DB2, Oracle, SQL Server, and open source database questions.

SYS-ED Database Curriculum

SYS-EDís database curriculum have been developed based upon the standards of the New York State Department of Education.

Information technology infrastructure increasingly is comprised of a combination of proprietary and open source software. We extend industry standard database content with diagrams, code snippets, examples, sample data, exercises, from the CETi knowledge base. Information from the Open Source Initiative distributed through the GPL - General Public License also is selectively presented. Industry standard subject matter can be augmented with the course search engine.

It is our standard practice to qualify a prospective client's operating environment: web browser, operating system, web server, database, and middleware as part of teaching:

  • Logical and physical design for optimizing performanceofthe underlying database engine.
  • Migrating and upgrading applications from the client/server to the emerging service oriented architecture standard.
  • Web development utilizing .NET and open source Java frameworks.
  • The interoperability of .NET and Java and identification of pitfalls.

SYS-ED has been conducting courses in the public domain since 1980; however, there have been changes in the laws and regulations governing computer training in the state of New York. The schedule on our websites reflects a projected time frame for licensure with the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision and submission and approval of curriculum.

Specialized Database Training Services

ETL: Extract, Transform, Load have been combined into a unified tool for extraction from one database and placement into another database. ETL functionality is presented in conjunction with database programming, administration, utilities, and performance courses.

    ETL: Extract, Transform, and Load Tools    
  Extract   Transform   Load  
  Read from a database.   Convert the extracted data for placement into another database.   Write data into the target database.  

The leading commercial ETL vendors are: Ab Initio, Adeptia ETL, Business Objects Data Integrator, DBSoft Lab, IBM Infosphere DataStage, Informatica, Information Server, Integration Services, Oracle Data Integrator, Oracle Warehouse Builder, Pervasive ETL, SAS ETL, SSIS: SQL Server Integration Services, and Sybase ETL.

Database Training Services

Database Training
SYS-ED's courses teach database administration and programming on commercial and open source operating systems, web servers, and development platforms. 2

SYS-ED's training service draws upon a library of walkthroughs, examples, exercises, and case studies to explain, demonstrate, and implement information technology - databases, scripting, and web development.

Teaching is Our Only Business
Most computer training companies are divisions of large software companies or consulting companies. Not SYS-ED. Our only goal is to provide quality computer training for motivated professionals.

Our Teachers Know How to Teach
SYS-ED instructors combine teaching skills with database experience: administration, programming, and web enablement software. After a course, they are available to answer questions.

Enrollment - SYS-ED Database Courses are Not for Everyone
No one is allowed to enroll in a SYS-ED course, without a consultation with our director of education. We review the operational objectives and project specifications for the organization evaluating whether to send its employee for the training. The employee only is allowed to enroll if they have the background corresponding to the course.

Database Training - Distance-learning or at Your Office
Database courses are provided over the Internet through a distance-learning delivery medium or classroom instruction. Client location courses can include the same workshops as the SYS-ED schedule.

Technology Exchange Websites
SYS-ED's websites compile, organize, and present software specific and established operational categorizations of information technology. They provide a framework for assessing knowledge transfer: web-based training, classroom instruction, courseware, learning paths, and validation assessment.

Footnote 1:
Top Ten Trends for Digital Transformation in 2018, Jacqueline Emigh, reported in the Software Development Times, January 2018, volume 2- issue 7.

Footnote 2:
SYS-EDís core computer applications, mainframe, UNIX, and Java curriculum have been submitted to the New York State Department of Education - Bureau of Proprietary School Supervision for review and licensure.